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III. Read the passage và choose the best answer (A or B, C, D) from 21 to 30

Continents và ocean basins represent the largest identifiable bodies on Earth. On the solid portions of the planet, the second most prominent features are flat plains, elevated plateaus, & large mountain ranges. In geography, the term “continent” refers khổng lồ the surface of continuous landmasses that together comprise about 29.2% of the planet’s surface. On the other hand, another definition is prevalent in the general use of the term that deals with extensive mainlands, such as Europe or Asia, that actually represent one very large landmass. Although all continents are bounded by water bodies or high mountain ranges, isolated mainlands, such as Greenland và India-Pakistan areas are called subcontinents. In some circles, the distinction between continents & large islands lies almost exclusively in the form size of particular landmass.

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The analysis of compression và tension in the earth’s crust has determined that continental structures are composed of layers that underlie continental shelves. A great giảm giá khuyến mãi of disagreement among geologists surrounds the issue of exactly how many layers underlie each landmass because of their distinctive mineral & chemical composition. It is also quite possible that the ocean floor rests on the đứng đầu of unknown continents that have not yet been explored. The continental crust is believed lớn have been formed by means of a chemical reaction when lighter materials separated from heavier ones, thus settling at various levels within the crust. Assisted by the measurements of the specifics within crust formations by means of monitoring earthquakes, geologists can speculate that a chemical split occurred to khung the atmosphere, sea water, and the crust before it solidified many centuries ago.Although each continent has its special features, all consist of various combinations of components that include shields, mountain belts, intracratonic basins, margins, volcanic plateaus, & blockvaulted belts. The basic differences among continents lie in the proportion và the composition of these features relative to lớn the continent size. Climatic zones have a crucial effect on the weathering và formation of the surface features, soil erosion, soil deposition, land formation, vegetation, & human activities.Mountain belts are elongated narrow zones that have a characteristic folded sedimentary organization of layers. They are typically produced during substantial crustal movements, which generate faulting and mountain building. When continental margins collide, the rise of a marginal edge leads lớn the formation of large mountain ranges, as explained by the plate tectonic theory. This process also accounts for the occurrence of mountain belts in ocean basins & produces evidence for the ongoing continental plate evolution.

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A. Continental drift & division

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