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Read the following passage & mark the letter A, B, C, D on your answer sheet khổng lồ indicate the correct answer khổng lồ each of the questions

Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty seconds. When this short amount of time elapses, however, the numbers are erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to lớn the short term memory (STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest lớn pass on lớn the STM, also known as the working memory.

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There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short term memory. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller, a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of information, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number. Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on khổng lồ long term storage.
When making a conscious effort lớn memorize something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in “rote rehearsal”. By repeating something over & over again, one is able to lớn keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency khổng lồ disappear. When a pen và paper are not handy, people often attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If the doorbell rings or the dog barks khổng lồ come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to lớn pass information from the short term to long term memory. A better way is lớn practice “elaborate rehearsal”. This involves assigning semantic meaning lớn a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long term memories.
Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long term memory & used often; however, if a memory seems to be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorization.

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A. They revert from the long term memory.

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