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In mathematics, an "identity" is an equation which is always true. These can be "trivially" true, like "x = x" or usefully true, such as the Pythagorean Theorem"s "a2 + b2 = c2" for right triangles. There are loads of trigonometric identities, but the following are the ones you"re most likely khổng lồ see and use.

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Basic & Pythagorean, Angle-Sum và -Difference, Double-Angle, Half-Angle, Sum, Product


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Notice how a "co-(something)" trig ratio is always the reciprocal of some "non-co" ratio. You can use this fact khổng lồ help you keep straight that cosecant goes with sine and secant goes with cosine.

The following (particularly the first of the three below) are called "Pythagorean" identities.

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cảnh báo that the three identities above all involve squaring và the number 1. You can see the Pythagorean-Thereom relationship clearly if you consider the unit circle, where the angle is t, the "opposite" side is sin(t) = y, the "adjacent" side is cos(t) = x, and the hypotenuse is 1.

We have sầu additional identities related khổng lồ the functional status of the trig ratios:


Notice in particular that sine và tangent are odd functions, being symmetric about the origin, while cosine is an even function, being symmetric about the y-axis. The fact that you can take the argument"s "minus" sign outside (for sine and tangent) or eliminate it entirely (forcosine) can be helpful when working with complicated expressions.

Angle-Sum & -Difference Identities


sin(α + β) = sin(α) cos(β) + cos(α) sin(β)

sin(α – β) = sin(α) cos(β) – cos(α) sin(β)

cos(α + β) = cos(α) cos(β) – sin(α) sin(β)

cos(α – β) = cos(α) cos(β) + sin(α) sin(β)


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/ <1 - tan(a)tan(b)>, tan(a - b) = / <1 + tan(a)tan(b)>">


By the way, in the above sầu identities, the angles are denoted by Greek letters. The a-type letter, "α", is called "alpha", which is pronounced "AL-fuh". The b-type letter, "β", is called "beta", which is pronounced "BAY-tuh".

sin(2x) = 2 sin(x) cos(x)

cos(2x) = cos2(x) – sin2(x) = 1 – 2 sin2(x) = 2 cos2(x) – 1


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, cos(x/2) = +/- sqrt<(1 + cos(x))/2>, tan(x/2) = +/- sqrt<(1 - cos(x))/(1 + cos(x))>" style="min-width:398px;">

The above sầu identities can be re-stated by squaring each side và doubling all of the angle measures. The results are as follows:


You will be using all of these identities, or nearly so, for proving other trig identities & for solving trig equations. However, if you"re going on to study calculus, pay particular attention to the restated sine & cosine half-angle identities, because you"ll be using them a lot in integral calculus.

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